عنوان مقاله [English]
Development of low-cost small satellites has been at the center of attention in recent years. Concurrent Orbit and Attitude Estimation (COAE) requires fewer sensors onboard and subsequently results in some cost reductions. In this regard, the present paper has focused on addressing the importance of COAE utilizing temperature rate on satellite surfaces. To this end, the thermal model for a low Earth orbiting satellite is introduced first. A three-axis stabilized spacecraft is assumed equipped with small measurement plates that are isolated from each other and from the internal heat sources of the satellite. As the Sun and the Earth are the significant sources of radiation for a near Earth space system, the view factor is the key parameter for observability of the orbital elements, while the Sun radiation is responsible for the attitude observability. The Earth albedo factor is a major uncertain parameter required for the thermal analysis of low Earth orbiting satellites. This parameter is greatly dependent on the Earth’s local terrain and climatic conditions such as instantaneous cloud coverage. To address the problem of albedo factor uncertainty, it is estimated simultaneously with the attitude and orbit of the satellite. NASA's CERES project provides satellite-based observations of the Earth’s radiation budget and clouds over almost 18 years. In this paper, CERES data tables for the Earth’s thermal flux and albedo factor have been used to produce more realistic measurement data. The nonlinear filter of Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is also exploited for the state estimation. Lack of sun radiation during the satellite’s eclipse intervals results in the loss of orbit and attitude observability. The performance and viability of the proposed COAE algorithm are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is conducted within a wide range of semi major axes, eccentricities, and inclinations. The results demonstrate the high sensitivity of the algorithm to the orbit altitude and the sun rays direction.